CentOS 6.3 Ipv6 Default Gateway

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hello,
i met a problem in configuratiion of ipv6 gw in my box i install CentOS 6.3 (64 bit) on my boxs, which have four netcard. i use a straight-through cable to connect CentOSv0:netcard-2 and CentOSv1:netcard2
the topology is this:
client c(windows xp) <-->CentOSv0:netcard-3 <--> CentOSv0:netcard-2 <--->
CentOSv1:netcard-2 <---->CentOSv1:netcard-2 <---> client d (backtrack r2
32)
1:2:3:4::2/64 1:2:3:4::1/64 1:2:3::4/64
1:2:3::5/64 1:2:3:5::1/64
1:2:3:5::2/64

what i want to do is set default gw on CentOSv0 to CentOSv1

i configure /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifconfig-eth2 (CentOSv0) as this DEVICE=”eth2″
BOOTPROTO=static HWADDR=”60:A4:4C:23:2F:6F”
NM_CONTROLLED=”yes”
ONBOOT=”yes”
TYPE=”Ethernet”
#UUID=”0ddcf499-878f-4ac7-9d1a-c27f85d2bccf”
IPV6INIT=yes IPV6ADDR=1:2:3::4
IPV6_DEFAULTGW=1:2:3::5

and i also configure /etc/sysconfig/network to this:
NETWORKING=yes HOSTNAME

6 thoughts on - CentOS 6.3 Ipv6 Default Gateway

  • Hello,

    I may be totally off base here but…

    Surely, I hope you jest with those numbers. You are not allowed to pick numbers out of the air and just use them, even if it’s for private use. There are specific blocks of addresses for specific uses and assigned
    “scopes” and all the “private use” addresses are in blocks very high up in the address space beginning with fc or fd. If those are literally the addresses you used, they will not work and I would expect them to give you all sorts of grief at some point or another.

    I take it “CentOSv0” and “CentOSv1” are configured for ipv6 forwarding?
    You didn’t provide the information on that. There are some gotcha’s in there with default routing on a router (basically there is no such thing) and the router needs to be set up properly for both routing and its routes. But I don’t think that’s your problem you’re describing down below.

    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ You didn’t specify a netmask here (default /128).

    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Technically not on your interface’s network (/128)

    For forwarding…

    In that file you’re also going to need:

    IPV6FORWARDING=yes

    You may also need to add lines to /etc/sysctl.conf (I’ve needed in the past on Fedora):

    net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding = 1
    net.ipv6.conf.default.forwarding = 1

    But those aren’t your problem with this…

    I’m not totally sure if this is because you didn’t specify a prefix length on your IPV6ADDR line or the fact that it then conflicted with your IPV6_DEFAULTGW which would not have been on 1:2:3::4/128 or if it was because you choose and illegal IPv6 prefix or if it was a combination of all of them. The “WARN: [ipv6_add_route] Unknown error”
    makes me suspicious because your default gatway conflicts with your interface network definition (because you didn’t specify the prefix size and it defaulted to /128) and the kernel has no way to route it out any interface. IAC… You won’t be able to use a default route on a router anyways (more below).

    If those were literally the addresses you used, It may be an address that’s in an illegal scope. IPv6 does not behave quite like IPv4 does and you need to know what some of these blocks of addresses do and what their scope is.

    “Local” IPv6 unicast addresses begin with the prefix fc00::/7 and there are recommended procedures for assigning subnets out of them and choosing network prefixes…

    http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4193.txt

    Those may be routed between your machines but may not be routed on the global net either as a source or destination address. Your machines should also be given “link local” addresses which are valid only on that network segment. They’re in the fe80::/64 prefix.

    Global addresses are in the 2000::/3 block. If you are using a Linux system as an IPv6 router, the kernel is going to disable the default route (::/0), preventing non-global addresses from routing. You’ll have to add appropriate routes for all your “local” (fc00::/7) subnets and also provide a global unicast default route using 2000::/3 on the routers.

    Don’t try to do your setup above with the two routers pointing default routes at each other. Point specific static routes for each subnet behind each respective opposite router.

    Wikipedia has a rundown on the various address blocks and formats:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPv6_address

    Local addresses in particular are described here:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unique_local_address

    Anything in 1::/16 (if that’s what you’re doing) is going to be illegal afaik as it’s not in an assigned block and scope. It should reject it as being unroutable or having a non-valid scope.

    Certain addresses below 2000::/3 are used for compatibility purposes.

    ::a.b.c.d use to be an IPv4 compatibility address but is largely deprecated.

    ::ffff:a.b.c.d are IPv4 / IPv6 transition addresses for applications running in a dual stack environment where they see IPv4 addresses as IPv6 addresses in the ::ffff:0:0/112 block. All those addresses are for internal use and are seriously hands off.

    You can not treat IPv6 arbitrarily as if it were IPv4 with fat addresses. If you need to learn more about IPv6 and how it works, you probably might want to start looking at Hurricane Electric aka Tunnelbroker.net, http://www.tunnelbroker.net . They have some very good IPv6 interactive tutorials there for free and are very quick for the basic stuff. The first few exercise could be very helpful to you. If you follow it all the way through, you will find yourself learning how to set up DNS properly for IPv6 and registering your own IPv6 glue records with your registrars.

    Now, if I’m off base here and you were merely obfuscating your real addresses, I would recommend obfuscating them with fc00: instead of 1:
    and those would be valid example addresses. You could use fc00:1:1:1::/64 for one network and fc00:1:1:2::/64 for another and fc00:1:1:3::/64 for yet another. Read that RFC for recommendations on what you really should chose (generally a random number for fdxx:xxxx:xxxx::/48 before your SLA). Since you’ve got 2 routers, you’ll need three network prefixes, which I see you have. Generally, you’ll want to manipulate that fourth field as your SLA (Site Local Address) which is IPv6 lingo for your subnet address.

    Replace the leading “1:” in each of those nets with “fdxx:”, add your appropriate subnets, add your appropriate prefix lengths to those static address, and add appropriate static routes, and you might get further along the road.

    Regards, Mike

  • Slight Clarification on v6 addressing…

    That’s “should” as in the kernel should already have assigned your link-local v6 addresses to your interfaces. You don’t have to provide them and I didn’t mean to imply you needed to add them.

    Generally, if I’m using static IPv6 addresses, I take that link local address and replace the “fe80::” with the network prefix I’m assigning and leave the lower bits the same. That way it has the same address as would be assigned by stateless autoconf generated from router advertisements from a router.

    On Linux routers, you would use either zebra from the quagga package or radvd to provide router advertisements out to your clients and you’ll probably need to add that to get the end clients to self configure properly.

    Regards, Mike

  • 2013/4/12 Michael H. Warfield

    i test those ipv6 address on ubuntu 12.04, and it is ok. But now, we should change system to CentOS 6.3.
    And i add all the stuff that i miss. One machine is configured like this:

    [root@CentOSv0 sysconfig]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth2
    DEVICE=”eth2″
    BOOTPROTO=static HWADDR=”60:A4:4C:23:2F:6F”
    NM_CONTROLLED=”yes”
    ONBOOT=”yes”
    TYPE=”Ethernet”
    #UUID=”0ddcf499-878f-4ac7-9d1a-c27f85d2bccf”
    IPV6INIT=yes IPV6ADDR=1:2:3::4/64
    IPV6_DEFAULTGW=1:2:3::5/64

    and add the below to /etc/sysctl.conf

    net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding = 1
    net.ipv6.conf.default.forwarding = 1

    and through /proc i can see this

    [root@CentOSv0 sysconfig]# cat /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/default/forwarding
    1
    [root@CentOSv0 sysconfig]# cat /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/forwarding
    1

    and through command ifconfig i can see this

    eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 60:A4:4C:23:2F:6E
    inet6 addr: 1:2:3:4::1/64 Scope:Global —>
    subnet
    inet6 addr: fe80::62a4:4cff:fe23:2f6e/64 Scope:Link
    UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
    RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
    TX packets:22 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
    collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
    RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:2028 (1.9 KiB)
    Interrupt:17 Memory:dc300000-dc320000

    eth2 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 60:A4:4C:23:2F:6F
    inet6 addr: 1:2:3::4/64 Scope:Global
    —-> connected by straight-through cable
    inet6 addr: fe80::62a4:4cff:fe23:2f6f/64 Scope:Link
    UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
    RX packets:3 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
    TX packets:22 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
    collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
    RX bytes:210 (210.0 b) TX bytes:2028 (1.9 KiB)
    Interrupt:18 Memory:dc200000-dc220000

    eth3 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 60:A4:4C:23:2F:70
    inet addr:192.168.5.211 Bcast:192.168.5.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
    —-> used by my ssh
    inet6 addr: fe80::62a4:4cff:fe23:2f70/64 Scope:Link
    UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
    RX packets:3008 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
    TX packets:1080 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
    collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
    RX bytes:291006 (284.1 KiB) TX bytes:154231 (150.6 KiB)
    Interrupt:19 Memory:dc100000-dc120000

    lo Link encap:Local Loopback
    inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
    inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
    UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
    RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
    TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
    collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
    RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)

    but when restart the network, i also get this error

    Shutting down interface eth1: [ OK ]
    Shutting down interface eth2: [ OK ]
    Shutting down interface eth3: [ OK ]
    Shutting down loopback interface: [ OK ]
    Bringing up loopback interface: [ OK ]
    Bringing up interface eth1: [ OK ]
    Bringing up interface eth2: WARN : [ipv6_add_route] Unknown error
    [ OK ]
    Bringing up interface eth3: [ OK ]

    As you said that the ipv6 address is in illegal scope and can not goto global net, I use those ipv6 address for a private use, and i test them ok on ubuntu
    12.04.

    Must i change ipv6 address to some thing like 2000::/3, even i just want to use ipv6 for private?

    IPv6 does not behave quite like IPv4 does

    But the specific static routes are not connect directly, the peers are connected by straight-through cable in eth2
    client c < --> cetnosv0 eth1 < --> CentOSv0 eth2 < =====> CentOSv1 eth2 < -->
    CentOSv1 eth1 < --> client d
    |
    |___
    here are connected by straight-through cable

    Best Regards, jaze

  • ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ You do NOT need the /64 on this line.

    This time, it would be my guess that it’s because you added the /64 to your gateway address, but the default gateway is not going to work on a router anyways.

    You are, none the less, not suppose to use addresses in that block for ANYTHING. The fc00::/7 block is intended for what you want to do. Even if they happen to work, they are not guaranteed to work and may cause other problems (like reverse DNS lookup traffic).

    No, you should change them to FC00:/7 for private use. That’s what that block was allocated for. Use it. Don’t just dream up stuff.

    You will need static routes on each of your two routers for your two client routes.

    For example. If your networks are allocated as follows…

    fd00:1:1:1::/64 < -> Router 1 < -> fd00:1:1:2::/64 < -> Router 2 < -> fd00:1:1:3::/64

    Then, on router 1 you need a static route:

    fd00:1:1:3::/64 via fd00:1:1:2::{Router 2 address}

    And on router 2 you need a static route:

    fd00:1:1:1::/64 via fd00:1:1:2::{Router 1 Address}

    I generally stuff static routes either in /etc/sysconfig/static-routes-ipv6 but I’m not sure how well that works with NetworkManager since the FIRST thing I do is disable NetworkManager on a router.

    |
    |___

    You’ll still need static routes on the routers on each side of that
    “straight-through cable” to point across the cable for the routing of the network on the other side of the cable and opposite router.

    Don’t try and cross default routes pointing at each other router. That’s highly unreliable and prone to routing loops in IPv4 and flat out will not work in IPv6 due to default routing being disabled in Linux for IPv6 when IPv6 forwarding is enabled.

    Regards, Mike

  • 2013/4/12 Michael H. Warfield

    Currently, i just use those ipv6 address to set up my testing environment. One day
    they will be replaced by global ipv6 address. And i do not have any global ipv6 address right now,
    i have to use some thing like 1:2:3::4. They truely work on ubuntu
    12.04, so i think they should work on
    CentOS. But now, i realize i am wrong, what about i change the
    1:2:3:4/64 to fc:2:3::4/64 ?
    Is that ok?

    I change ipv6 address to this:

    DEVICE=”eth2″ ———————————> in CentOSv0
    BOOTPROTO=”static”
    HWADDR=”60:A4:4C:23:2F:4F”
    NM_CONTROLLED=”yes”
    ONBOOT=”yes”
    TYPE=”Ethernet”
    #UUID=”97d250ea-74db-47ae-bd8c-6682f57f9add”
    IPV6INIT=yes IPV6ADDR

  • Big snip…

    That last statement is incorrect. Just because they work on Ubuntu doesn’t guarantee they will work on CentOS, Scientific Linux, Fedora, or Redhat Enterprise, if they do not adhere to the proper standards. You are in an area that should be considered “undefined behavior” where it might work or it might not but, if it doesn’t, it’s your fault not that of the system. Although, in this case, this seems to have been more of a configuration error/confusion issue between how the systems are configured.

    No. Strictly speaking, it should be fc00:2:3::4/64. The prefix for local unicast is fc00:: or fd00::, not fc::. It’s fc00 not fc.

    Great! Good to see you’ve made progress!

    No. Actually I suspect it’s more in the supporting scripts and infrastructure. The RedHat base distros (RH, Fedora, CentOS, SL, NST, etc) and the Debian based distros (Ubuntu, Knoppix, Backtrack, etc) have based their network support on different paradigms (and is probably the PRIMARY reason why I dislike Debian, Knoppix and Ubuntu in their network code).

    Historically, the RH based system is (VERY) loosely based on some of the ideas that evolved out of the AT&T SYSV system with separate configuration files, the classical init scripts are still referred to as the sysv-init stuff, and what not. NetworkManager aka NetworkMangler and systemd are throwing all that for a loop lately with some improvements and some abject debacles.

    OTOH, Debian was more in-line with the BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) philosophy and their network interfaces and a common init configuration file.

    The RH derivative scripts for IPv6 support are largely based on the work of Peter Bieringer in the ipv6init scripts (to which I had some minor input and contributions). I honestly don’t know what Debian / Ubuntu is using but there are some very significant deviations in behavior and filtering in that arena. It’s not at all just a kernel issue.

    I’ve done some “internal” distributions based on both paradigms (one based on Knoppix and one based on NST – Network Security ToolKit) plus contributions to several others. If you are in a well defined region
    (IOW – assigned addresses and network topology, etc) everything will
    (should) work consistently between the two paradigms (it’s just that translating configurations between the two is a bugger), because the conditions are defined and have defined behaviors. When you are in a
    “gray area” or and undefined area where you are not adhering to the well established best common practices, standards and assignments – all bets are off – you pays your nickel and you takes your chance, and you get the blame for free. It may well work on one distribution (and I may argue that’s that bug in that distribution in allowing it) and not in another. I would not be surprised at all by the behavior you have experienced there.

    This, I’m very glad to hear it. Go through that Hurricane Electric stuff. You’ll find it useful as you learn more about IPv6.

    Thanks. I do try to help, even though I often come across as abrasive and dogmatic.

    Regards, Mike

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