/dev/md1 => 93% Used. Warning. Disk Filling Up. – What Would Be Safe To Delete In /boot ?

Home » CentOS » /dev/md1 => 93% Used. Warning. Disk Filling Up. – What Would Be Safe To Delete In /boot ?
CentOS 2 Comments

Hello CentOS users,

in the recent time I keep getting the logwatch warnings from my 2 dedicated servers running CentOS 7.4.1708.

I guess because of the numerous kernel updates (because of Spectre+Meltdown) in the near past?

Could someone please suggest me, which files in my /boot partition would be safe to delete?

I would like to avoid the situation of having to boot the rescue partiton etc. remotely… and at the same time I am not proficient with grub or whatever my provider has configured my dedicated hosts to use…

# ls -al /boot total 427877
dr-xr-xr-x. 6 root root 6144 28. Jan 10:33 . dr-xr-xr-x 18 root root 4096 7. Feb 03:34 ..
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 140899 5. Dez 01:04
config-3.10.0-693.11.1.el7.x86_64
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 140915 4. Jan 02:19
config-3.10.0-693.11.6.el7.x86_64
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 140915 25. Jan 21:26
config-3.10.0-693.17.1.el7.x86_64
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 140898 13. Sep 00:38
config-3.10.0-693.2.2.el7.x86_64
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 140898 20. Okt 22:56
config-3.10.0-693.5.2.el7.x86_64
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 1024 15. Sep 09:43 efi drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 1024 11. Apr 2016 grub drwx——. 5 root root 1024 28. Jan 10:31 grub2
-rw-r–r–. 1 root root 40142116 15. Dez 2015
initramfs-0-rescue-34946d7b5edb0946bfb52c0f6cae67af.img
-rw——- 1 root root 50402914 6. Dez 09:23
initramfs-3.10.0-693.11.1.el7.x86_64.img
-rw——- 1 root root 18149718 6. Dez 09:24
initramfs-3.10.0-693.11.1.el7.x86_64kdump.img
-rw——- 1 root root 50405879 5. Jan 09:02
initramfs-3.10.0-693.11.6.el7.x86_64.img
-rw——- 1 root root 18150336 5. Jan 09:04
initramfs-3.10.0-693.11.6.el7.x86_64kdump.img
-rw——- 1 root root 50402830 28. Jan 10:31
initramfs-3.10.0-693.17.1.el7.x86_64.img
-rw——- 1 root root 18147918 28. Jan 10:33
initramfs-3.10.0-693.17.1.el7.x86_64kdump.img
-rw——- 1 root root 50341850 15. Sep 09:45
initramfs-3.10.0-693.2.2.el7.x86_64.img
-rw——- 1 root root 18147818 22. Okt 10:07
initramfs-3.10.0-693.2.2.el7.x86_64kdump.img
-rw——- 1 root root 50393743 24. Okt 09:39
initramfs-3.10.0-693.5.2.el7.x86_64.img
-rw——- 1 root root 18146720 24. Okt 09:40
initramfs-3.10.0-693.5.2.el7.x86_64kdump.img
-rw-r–r–. 1 root root 611928 15. Sep 09:45 initrd-plymouth.img drwx—— 2 root root 12288 25. Mai 2016 lost+found
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 293093 5. Dez 01:07
symvers-3.10.0-693.11.1.el7.x86_64.gz
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 293110 4. Jan 02:21
symvers-3.10.0-693.11.6.el7.x86_64.gz
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 293109 25. Jan 21:28
symvers-3.10.0-693.17.1.el7.x86_64.gz
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 293064 13. Sep 00:40
symvers-3.10.0-693.2.2.el7.x86_64.gz
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 293084 20. Okt 22:59
symvers-3.10.0-693.5.2.el7.x86_64.gz
-rw——- 1 root root 3228852 5. Dez 01:04
System.map-3.10.0-693.11.1.el7.x86_64
-rw——- 1 root root 3232490 4. Jan 02:19
System.map-3.10.0-693.11.6.el7.x86_64
-rw——- 1 root root 3232454 25. Jan 21:26
System.map-3.10.0-693.17.1.el7.x86_64
-rw——- 1 root root 3228852 13. Sep 00:38
System.map-3.10.0-693.2.2.el7.x86_64
-rw——- 1 root root 3228852 20. Okt 22:56
System.map-3.10.0-693.5.2.el7.x86_64
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 5156528 15. Dez 2015
vmlinuz-0-rescue-34946d7b5edb0946bfb52c0f6cae67af
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 5877504 5. Dez 01:05
vmlinuz-3.10.0-693.11.1.el7.x86_64
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 171 5. Dez 01:05
.vmlinuz-3.10.0-693.11.1.el7.x86_64.hmac
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 5889728 4. Jan 02:19
vmlinuz-3.10.0-693.11.6.el7.x86_64
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 171 4. Jan 02:19
.vmlinuz-3.10.0-693.11.6.el7.x86_64.hmac
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 5890720 25. Jan 21:26
vmlinuz-3.10.0-693.17.1.el7.x86_64
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 171 25. Jan 21:26
.vmlinuz-3.10.0-693.17.1.el7.x86_64.hmac
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 5878848 13. Sep 00:38
vmlinuz-3.10.0-693.2.2.el7.x86_64
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 170 13. Sep 00:38
.vmlinuz-3.10.0-693.2.2.el7.x86_64.hmac
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 5878368 20. Okt 22:56
vmlinuz-3.10.0-693.5.2.el7.x86_64
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 170 20. Okt 22:56
.vmlinuz-3.10.0-693.5.2.el7.x86_64.hmac

# cat /etc/grub2.cfg
#
# DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE
#
# It is automatically generated by grub2-mkconfig using templates
# from /etc/grub.d and settings from /etc/default/grub
#

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/00_header ###
set pager=1

if [ -s $prefix/grubenv ]; then
load_env fi if [ “${next_entry}” ] ; then
set default=”${next_entry}”
set next_entry save_env next_entry
set boot_once=true else
set default=”${saved_entry}”
fi

if [ x”${feature_menuentry_id}” = xy ]; then
menuentry_id_option=”–id”
else
menuentry_id_option=””
fi

export menuentry_id_option

if [ “${prev_saved_entry}” ]; then
set saved_entry=”${prev_saved_entry}”
save_env saved_entry
set prev_saved_entry save_env prev_saved_entry
set boot_once=true fi

function savedefault {
if [ -z “${boot_once}” ]; then
saved_entry=”${chosen}”
save_env saved_entry
fi
}

function load_video {
if [ x$feature_all_video_module = xy ]; then
insmod all_video
else
insmod efi_gop
insmod efi_uga
insmod ieee1275_fb
insmod vbe
insmod vga
insmod video_bochs
insmod video_cirrus
fi
}

terminal_output console if [ x$feature_timeout_style = xy ] ; then
set timeout_style=menu
set timeout=5
# Fallback normal timeout code in case the timeout_style feature is
# unavailable. else
set timeout=5
fi
### END /etc/grub.d/00_header ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/00_tuned ###
set tuned_params=””
### END /etc/grub.d/00_tuned ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/01_users ###
if [ -f ${prefix}/user.cfg ]; then
source ${prefix}/user.cfg
if [ -n “${GRUB2_PASSWORD}” ]; then
set superusers=”root”
export superusers
password_pbkdf2 root ${GRUB2_PASSWORD}
fi fi
### END /etc/grub.d/01_users ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/10_linux ###
menuentry ‘CentOS Linux (3.10.0-693.17.1.el7.x86_64) 7 (Core)’ –class CentOS –class gnu-linux –class gnu –class os –unrestricted
$menuentry_id_option
‘gnulinux-3.10.0-327.13.1.el7.x86_64-advanced-2a4bc862-eb7a-46b1-8979-d19c873dca3b’
{
load_video
set gfxpayload=keep
insmod gzio
insmod part_msdos
insmod part_msdos
insmod diskfilter
insmod mdraid1x
insmod ext2
set root=’mduuid/84bbf877f8bd0f7aa0c64064178966b4′
if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root
–hint=’mduuid/84bbf877f8bd0f7aa0c64064178966b4′
2206a439-5490-46d0-8d5e-9da8962924df
else
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root
2206a439-5490-46d0-8d5e-9da8962924df
fi
linux16 /vmlinuz-3.10.0-693.17.1.el7.x86_64 root=/dev/md/2 ro nomodeset rd.auto=1 crashkernel=auto LANG=en_US.UTF-8
initrd16 /initramfs-3.10.0-693.17.1.el7.x86_64.img
}
menuentry ‘CentOS Linux (3.10.0-693.11.6.el7.x86_64) 7 (Core)’ –class CentOS –class gnu-linux –class gnu –class os –unrestricted
$menuentry_id_option
‘gnulinux-3.10.0-327.13.1.el7.x86_64-advanced-2a4bc862-eb7a-46b1-8979-d19c873dca3b’
{
load_video
set gfxpayload=keep
insmod gzio
insmod part_msdos
insmod part_msdos
insmod diskfilter
insmod mdraid1x
insmod ext2
set root=’mduuid/84bbf877f8bd0f7aa0c64064178966b4′
if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root
–hint=’mduuid/84bbf877f8bd0f7aa0c64064178966b4′
2206a439-5490-46d0-8d5e-9da8962924df
else
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root
2206a439-5490-46d0-8d5e-9da8962924df
fi
linux16 /vmlinuz-3.10.0-693.11.6.el7.x86_64 root=/dev/md/2 ro nomodeset rd.auto=1 crashkernel=auto LANG=en_US.UTF-8
initrd16 /initramfs-3.10.0-693.11.6.el7.x86_64.img
}
menuentry ‘CentOS Linux (3.10.0-693.11.1.el7.x86_64) 7 (Core)’ –class CentOS –class gnu-linux –class gnu –class os –unrestricted
$menuentry_id_option
‘gnulinux-3.10.0-327.13.1.el7.x86_64-advanced-2a4bc862-eb7a-46b1-8979-d19c873dca3b’
{
load_video
set gfxpayload=keep
insmod gzio
insmod part_msdos
insmod part_msdos
insmod diskfilter
insmod mdraid1x
insmod ext2
set root=’mduuid/84bbf877f8bd0f7aa0c64064178966b4′
if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root
–hint=’mduuid/84bbf877f8bd0f7aa0c64064178966b4′
2206a439-5490-46d0-8d5e-9da8962924df
else
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root
2206a439-5490-46d0-8d5e-9da8962924df
fi
linux16 /vmlinuz-3.10.0-693.11.1.el7.x86_64 root=/dev/md/2 ro nomodeset rd.auto=1 crashkernel=auto LANG=en_US.UTF-8
initrd16 /initramfs-3.10.0-693.11.1.el7.x86_64.img
}
menuentry ‘CentOS Linux (3.10.0-693.5.2.el7.x86_64) 7 (Core)’ –class CentOS –class gnu-linux –class gnu –class os –unrestricted
$menuentry_id_option
‘gnulinux-3.10.0-327.13.1.el7.x86_64-advanced-2a4bc862-eb7a-46b1-8979-d19c873dca3b’
{
load_video
set gfxpayload=keep
insmod gzio
insmod part_msdos
insmod part_msdos
insmod diskfilter
insmod mdraid1x
insmod ext2
set root=’mduuid/84bbf877f8bd0f7aa0c64064178966b4′
if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root
–hint=’mduuid/84bbf877f8bd0f7aa0c64064178966b4′
2206a439-5490-46d0-8d5e-9da8962924df
else
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root
2206a439-5490-46d0-8d5e-9da8962924df
fi
linux16 /vmlinuz-3.10.0-693.5.2.el7.x86_64 root=/dev/md/2 ro nomodeset rd.auto=1 crashkernel=auto LANG=en_US.UTF-8
initrd16 /initramfs-3.10.0-693.5.2.el7.x86_64.img
}
menuentry ‘CentOS Linux (3.10.0-693.2.2.el7.x86_64) 7 (Core)’ –class CentOS –class gnu-linux –class gnu –class os –unrestricted
$menuentry_id_option
‘gnulinux-3.10.0-327.13.1.el7.x86_64-advanced-2a4bc862-eb7a-46b1-8979-d19c873dca3b’
{
load_video
set gfxpayload=keep
insmod gzio
insmod part_msdos
insmod part_msdos
insmod diskfilter
insmod mdraid1x
insmod ext2
set root=’mduuid/84bbf877f8bd0f7aa0c64064178966b4′
if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root
–hint=’mduuid/84bbf877f8bd0f7aa0c64064178966b4′
2206a439-5490-46d0-8d5e-9da8962924df
else
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root
2206a439-5490-46d0-8d5e-9da8962924df
fi
linux16 /vmlinuz-3.10.0-693.2.2.el7.x86_64 root=/dev/md/2 ro nomodeset rd.auto=1 crashkernel=auto LANG=en_US.UTF-8
initrd16 /initramfs-3.10.0-693.2.2.el7.x86_64.img
}
menuentry ‘CentOS Linux (0-rescue-34946d7b5edb0946bfb52c0f6cae67af) 7
(Core)’ –class CentOS –class gnu-linux –class gnu –class os
–unrestricted $menuentry_id_option
‘gnulinux-0-rescue-34946d7b5edb0946bfb52c0f6cae67af-advanced-2a4bc862-eb7a-46b1-8979-d19c873dca3b’
{
load_video
insmod gzio
insmod part_msdos
insmod part_msdos
insmod diskfilter
insmod mdraid1x
insmod ext2
set root=’mduuid/84bbf877f8bd0f7aa0c64064178966b4′
if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root
–hint=’mduuid/84bbf877f8bd0f7aa0c64064178966b4′
2206a439-5490-46d0-8d5e-9da8962924df
else
search –no-floppy –fs-uuid –set=root
2206a439-5490-46d0-8d5e-9da8962924df
fi
linux16 /vmlinuz-0-rescue-34946d7b5edb0946bfb52c0f6cae67af root=UUID*4bc862-eb7a-46b1-8979-d19c873dca3b ro nomodeset rd.auto=1
crashkernel=auto
initrd16 /initramfs-0-rescue-34946d7b5edb0946bfb52c0f6cae67af.img
}
if [ “x$default” = ‘CentOS Linux (3.10.0-327.13.1.el7.x86_64) 7 (Core)’ ];
then default=’Advanced options for CentOS Linux>CentOS Linux
(3.10.0-327.13.1.el7.x86_64) 7 (Core)’; fi;
### END /etc/grub.d/10_linux ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/20_linux_xen ###
### END /etc/grub.d/20_linux_xen ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/20_ppc_terminfo ###
### END /etc/grub.d/20_ppc_terminfo ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###
### END /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/40_custom ###
# This file provides an easy way to add custom menu entries. Simply type the
# menu entries you want to add after this comment. Be careful not to change
# the ‘exec tail’ line above.
### END /etc/grub.d/40_custom ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/41_custom ###
if [ -f ${config_directory}/custom.cfg ]; then
source ${config_directory}/custom.cfg elif [ -z “${config_directory}” -a -f $prefix/custom.cfg ]; then
source $prefix/custom.cfg;
fi
### END /etc/grub.d/41_custom ###

Thank you for any hints Alex

2 thoughts on - /dev/md1 => 93% Used. Warning. Disk Filling Up. – What Would Be Safe To Delete In /boot ?

  • Don’t “delete” anything. It’s to do with old kernels – kernels aren’t updated as such, new ones are just installed. So long as you don’t need the old kernels, just remove the old kernel RPMs.

    In fact there are a number of tools to help you. By default yum keeps
    5 versions of old kernels (which is usually too many for the default
    /boot size – good joined-up thinking there!), that number is specified in /etc/yum.conf as “installonly_limit=5” – change that to a suitable number for you, personally I use ‘3’, some people have ‘2’ – don’t put it at ‘1’ because then you’ll not be able to use an old version to boot in to in emergency.

    The package yum-utils has the package-cleanup command to deal with various yum issues, including sorting out old kernels. Do

    package-cleanup –oldkernels –count=3

    to clean everything to do with old kernels leaving 3 versions on your system.

    P.

  • Thank you Pete for the very insightful answer!

    This has worked like a charm –

    I had:

    /dev/md1 488M 428M 34M 93% /boot

    Then I after running

    # package-cleanup –oldkernels –count=3
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
    –> Running transaction check
    —> Package kernel.x86_64 0:3.10.0-693.2.2.el7 will be erased
    —> Package kernel.x86_64 0:3.10.0-693.5.2.el7 will be erased
    –> Finished Dependency Resolution

    Dependencies Resolved

    =============================================================================== Package Arch Version Repository Size
    ===============================================================================Removing:
    kernel x86_64 3.10.0-693.2.2.el7 @updates
    59 M
    kernel x86_64 3.10.0-693.5.2.el7 @updates
    59 M

    Transaction Summary
    ===============================================================================Remove 2 Packages

    Installed size: 119 M
    Is this ok [y/N]: y Downloading packages:
    Running transaction check Running transaction test Transaction test succeeded Running transaction
    Erasing : kernel.x86_64
    1/2
    Erasing : kernel.x86_64
    2/2
    Verifying : kernel-3.10.0-693.5.2.el7.x86_64
    1/2
    Verifying : kernel-3.10.0-693.2.2.el7.x86_64
    2/2

    Removed:
    kernel.x86_64 0:3.10.0-693.2.2.el7 kernel.x86_64 0:3.10.0-693.5.2.el7

    Complete!

    I’ve ended up with comforting

    /dev/md1 488M 279M 184M 61% /boot

    Have a nice day!
    Alex

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